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欧洲眼中的福彩3d走势图专业连线版,吉塞拉·霍尔特和贝蒂纳·米格(EDS)

福彩3d走势图专业连线版 in the 欧洲an Eye,吉塞拉·霍夫特(Gisela Holfter)和贝蒂娜·米格(Bettina Migge)编辑,皇家福彩3d走势图专业连线版科学院,xx + 515页,€25,ISBN:978-1911479024

我小时候,报纸上经常出现标题“Irishman’s success abroad” or similar (“科克曼是费城警察局长”, “莱特里姆牧师在墨尔本荣幸”)。此类实例的规律性可能不如我的记忆所暗示的那么大,但是可以肯定的是,这只是时代的错综复杂,并且不难理解其含义或含义。移民迫使我们许多人离开该国,其中包括一些最优秀和最聪明的人。我们仍然对他们在半个世界之外的情况感兴趣(尽管在许多情况下失去了联系),并为他们的状况感到高兴,因为这肯定也对我们留下的那句话说了一点:即我们也许不那么自然就像那些在我国长期运转的人所建议的那样,这是无可挑剔的,而且在比1880年代多内加尔(Donegal)或1920年代朗福德(Longford)的情况更有利的情况下,我们甚至可以做到任何人。大约在同一时间,对于任何可能来都柏林的好莱坞明星来说,这都是惯例 晚晚秀。一个不可避免的问题是“您如何看待福彩3d走势图专业连线版人?”这些人都很精明,因此可能没有必要事先在绿色会议室中排练被认为可以接受的答案范围。而我不’不记得他们中的任何一个,甚至连奥利弗·里德(Oliver Reed)都说:“They’重新浪费大量的废物,如果他们没有,整天躺在床上’不必骑自行车到城里去收集救济金。”

我们的大多数移民都去了英国或美国,尽管一些在19世纪(自愿或其他方式)离开的人也最终在“the colonies”,主要在澳大利亚。然后,我们的侨民几乎只在英语国家/地区居住,正是有了这些,我们才有了主要的域外情感依恋。纽约,格拉斯哥或考文垂也可能是急需的来源“remittances” for many Irish families (as Dublin is today, no doubt, for many Polish, Lithuanian and Latvian ones). From the 1970s onwards however, 汇款 began to arrive from a different source, not payable directly to families but certainly benefiting most citizens indirectly. On this Brigid Laffan, in her essay in 福彩3d走势图专业连线版 in the 欧洲an Eye “Transforming 福彩3d走势图专业连线版 into an EU member state”, quotes Kevin O’Rourke:

福彩3d走势图专业连线版’1973年加入当时的EEC,并在1990年代初建立了单一市场,这是两个关键性的转折点,使我们的共和国能够将数十年的成就欠缺,并成为一个繁荣而自信的国家。今天。

拉凡博士让我们想起了“the good old days”我们可能已经忘记了,或者其中的年轻人可能不知道:失业率为17%,通货膨胀率为12%(均为1987年);罢工导致310,000个工作日损失(1986)。一个人可能会增加一种普遍的凄凉气氛,只有在新浪潮音乐爆炸的影响下– if you’ve nothing else to do why not make noise? ‑ and that wonderful holiday from reality supplied by the Irish football team in 1990. Unemployment was to fall in every year from 1993 to 2001, an improvement that Laffan attributes to the impact of 欧洲an structural funds, the industrial peace brought about by social partnership and the increase in foreign direct investment (FDI) as 福彩3d走势图专业连线版 increasingly became a base for US companies to export into the 欧洲an single market.

提醒您,并非所有人都感到高兴。拉凡博士引用了2000年两位政府部长的干预措施。íle de Valera和Mary Harney发表了演讲(都在美国),这使福彩3d走势图专业连线版感到质疑’s 欧洲an orientation. For de Valera it was a question of identity and culture: “我们发现,布鲁塞尔达成一致的指示和规定经常会严重影响我们的身份,文化和传统”. Harney’语音被更好地记住,或者至少它的发音被很好地记住:“从地理上讲,我们比波士顿更接近柏林。从精神上讲,我们可能比柏林更接近波士顿。”拉法恩博士认为这两种干预都代表了“soft Euroscepticism”,这也许是对的,但强调背后隐藏着的巨大政治哲学也很重要。

我建议德瓦莱拉女士表示希望,祖父所珍爱的传统福彩3d走势图专业连线版的遗物不会为追求财富而牺牲。为什么她认为对传统福彩3d走势图专业连线版的威胁主要来自“Brussels”考虑到她的断言相当不明确,很难说,但是她的思想中确实存在对文化同质化的恐惧。 Harney女士来自何方,这很清楚,可以说她的立场与deValeraist的立场截然相反。如果Síle希望我们至少度过我们的周日 观看 如果不参加运动青年比赛,玛丽会更愿意看到我们绕着M50兜售车,以追求便宜,这不仅是为了我们自己的满意,而且是我们作为良好公民在推动比赛和交付中所扮演的角色“keen prices”对于消费者来说,这种奇妙的市场机制。企业部长不是盖尔语和自由的福彩3d走势图专业连线版,而是最想要的是“一个做生意的好地方”。她说,美国社会是“建立在原始边防人员粗暴的个人主义基础上,这种经济模型主要建立在企业和激励,个人努力和政府干预有限的基础上”. Postwar 欧洲, on the other hand, was driven by “政府非常关心社会和谐与社会包容,政府准备通过税收和监管体系进行大力干预,以实现其预期成果”。很自然,她希望福彩3d走势图专业连线版遵循“middle way”在这些哲学之间– but not 中间:“I think it is fair to say that we have sailed closer to the American shore than the 欧洲an,”她满意地得出结论。

大多数福彩3d走势图专业连线版人可能对2000年的情况感到满意,当然,也有很多人对Mary Harney感到满意’的哲学和在办公室的记录,尽管我怀疑许多人是否确定“Europe”对他们持续不断的丰富化构成重大威胁。 Brigid Laffan认为这两个演讲都是代名词“信心增强,也许过分自信”。从2008年的事件及其灾难性后果的角度来看,很容易将矛头指向凯尔特虎年的狂妄自大(和疯狂)。拉法恩博士提到了34.8%的选民的自满情绪,这使我们在2001年无奈地拒绝了《尼斯条约》。(明年,在一次重选中,将近50%的选民显然是肯定的。 2008年6月,《里斯本条约》再次遭到拒绝。但是我们又有了第二次机会。过渡期间一定发生了一些事情–某种恐惧–在第二年的10月,选民以相同的比例(多于两个)批准了(或多或少)相同的提案。值得一提的是,尽管很多人可能会正确地预测,如果英国人两次(在英国退欧问题上)被问到相同的问题时,人们对民主的广泛不满和不满,我们似乎已经在很大程度上迈出了这一步。也许镇定的人。

I like to think there was a parallel on the level of popular culture to the hubris seen in our referendum voting in the 2000s. 的 欧洲an institution that Irish people are (or perhaps were) most interested in, the 欧洲an Song Contest, crowned 福彩3d走势图专业连线版 as winners in 1980, 1987 and again in 1992, 1993, 1994 and 1996. This was at a time when the nation was not accustomed to being first in anything, and we lapped it up. Wasn’人们如此喜欢我们真的很棒吗?但是,到了2008年,繁荣已变得头昏眼花,以至于我们以为没有’不再需要任何人。因此,我们选择了带有歌词而不是glic和 会心,以火鸡的都柏林的口音清晰地演唱。 我们 all got the joke of course, but one can be pretty certain that few others did. But what did we care about that? 我们 were 福彩3d走势图专业连线版, on top of the world: no one could touch us. Just to rub it in perhaps to 他们在那边 歌曲标题 福彩3d走势图专业连线版e Douze Pointes,具有两个拼写错误。“Yeah, I 知道 it’是错的。你以为我们在乎吗?我们’re havin’ a laugh.” Two years later the French head of the 欧洲an Central Bank, Jean-Claude Trichet, told finance minister Brian Lenihan quite firmly that there would be no more money coming over unless 福彩3d走势图专业连线版 entered a bailout programme. Now we cared.

拉凡博士写道,德瓦莱拉和哈尼的干预措施十分突出,“福彩3d走势图专业连线版将自己锚定在三个领域的方式– the UK, the US and continental 欧洲. Membership had not forced 福彩3d走势图专业连线版 to choose. It could have both Berlin and Boston.” And can it still? In the conclusion to her essay Brigid Laffan writes that, as it watches the UK depart from 欧洲, 福彩3d走势图专业连线版 still “在具有多个交叉模糊身份的连接世界中显得更加舒适”.

In the 1980s, during the periods in office of Charles Haughey and Garret FitzGerald, 福彩3d走势图专业连线版 would perhaps have been seen as more oriented towards 欧洲 (particularly France) than towards the United Kingdom. If this began to change that may have been a result of closer, and warmer, relations with the Major and Blair governments as 福彩3d走势图专业连线版 and the UK together grappled with the peace process; and it may also have been a result of a realignment of Irish economic policy which saw a move towards more low-tax, low-regulation policies, in tune with those of Britain. Arguably both Haughey and FitzGerald had wanted to see 福彩3d走势图专业连线版 take its place among the nations (to use Robert Emmet’通过发展多种关系,而不是长期困扰我们的经济和思维方式的令人窒息的关系。当然,这种重新调整将对文化和经济产生影响。福彩3d走势图专业连线版’过去的英语地位肯定是一个积极因素。它的单语可能不会在将来出现。

一个国家–至少从一个地理角度来看–是离岸岛屿(île derrière 恩 île, Chateaubriand is supposed to have said) is always going to have particular problems of peripherality, problems which 福彩3d走势图专业连线版 has tackled pragmatically and with considerable success over the last forty years and more. Now that the other island is pushing off, however, perhaps a reorientation will be called for. 的re was a hint of such in the interview //www.irishtimes.com/news/politics/britain-has-always-struggled-to-take-ireland-seriously-say-irish-ex-diplomats-1.3981993 recently conducted by Fiach Kelly of 福彩3d走势图专业连线版时报 与许多退休的高级公务员和外交官。尽管三位受访者都坚持认为与英国的关系在未来仍具有持续的重要性,特别是为了解决北韩脱欧后北福彩3d走势图专业连线版的困难而危险的问题,但1990年代道伊萨伊赫省部部长帕迪·蒂阿洪(Paddy Teahon)说过:“[过去]在很多情况下,我们在税收等问题上与英国达成了一致,这是现实。而现在我们’在一个新的体制中,因此在我们与欧盟的关系中,我们将不得不重新考虑一下,我知道他们’已经在做这个了...”

福彩3d走势图专业连线版 will of course, as always, be looking for a 中间方式, but perhaps we can hope that at least in terms of regulation, social inclusion and social provision we may in future consider sailing closer to the 欧洲an shore than the Anglo-American one.

11/9/2019

恩达’Doherty

注意:Brigid Laffan’论文只是其中的十九篇之一 福彩3d走势图专业连线版 in the 欧洲an Eye,其贡献涉及与福彩3d走势图专业连线版有关的广泛的社会主题,尤其是文化主题’s relation to 欧洲 and 欧洲ans’ perceptions of 福彩3d走势图专业连线版. This variety and plenitude makes the book virtually impossible to review, but we would hope in due course to return to other essays as jumping-off points for further ruminations on our relationships with 欧洲. It is worth saying at this stage, however, that the book is beautifully produced, excellent value, and, with German editors, multinational contributors, sponsorship from the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, the Goethe-Institut and the National University of 福彩3d走势图专业连线版, and a Polish printer, a splendid embodiment of the kind of co-operation and mutual understanding it seeks to foster.

 

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